Nature's Own Home

Approach to Nutrition

The Nutrition Gap
Creates Hidden Hunger


Addressing The Nutrition Gap Effectively

“Hidden Hunger affects more than two billion people. Even when a person consumes adequate calories and protein, if they lack one single micronutrient, or a combination of vitamins and minerals, their immune system is compromised and infections take hold.”
World Food Programme 2007




Hidden Hunger (otherwise known as The Nutrition Gap)

Hidden hunger is unlike the hunger that comes from a lack of food. It is a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals that often has no visible warning signs, so that sufferers may not even be aware of it. Its consequences are nevertheless disastrous: hidden hunger can lead to mental impairment, poor health and productivity, or even death. This is a global problem, but even in the affluent UK population, 1 in 3 people are affected.
In 2009 exhaustive work by The Government’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) identified a number of deficiencies in key nutrients in every group of the population. Yet there is still a widely held belief that we can get all we need from a balanced diet.

What is the truth? Let us examine the facts:

• Good nutrition is fundamental to good health
• To maintain good health, the human body requires a daily intake of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from food
• Many people are short of essential nutrients [4,16]
• Suboptimal intake of essential nutrients is linked to many of the prevailing degenerative diseases of our generation [1, 2, 4, 7, 20]
• Deficiencies may not always be obvious, as frequently these people are overweight
• Nutrients from food - or in the same form as those in food - are the only ones that can effectively meet our metabolic needs and satisfy our “hunger” in total.



Background and Overview

We were designed to live 120 years. Most of us live for just over half this time and die from the effects of ‘civilisation’, rather than the natural causes of aging [4]. The reasons for this are multifactorial, but the most significant predisposing factor is the dramatic change which has occurred over the past 70 years to our nutritional status [4]. We used to die from infection or trauma.
20th Century medicine has scored significant victories against these causes.
Today, most illnesses are caused by lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise and smoking [4].

To effectively address the first of these causes, we need to improve our nutritional status. But first, we need to understand what is going wrong.

The nutritional status of our bodies is dependent on 5 things:

• Our food choices;
• Food growing, processing and preparation methods;
• The nutrient content of the food we eat;
• The ability of our bodies to assimilate these nutrients;
• Lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol intake, which give rise to extra nutrient needs.



The Good Old Days - 1930 and before

The 1930s and before were a time of eco balance and symbiosis. Man evolved in harmony with the components he needed for good health:


Water - natural source and pure
Air - fresh and unpolluted
Light - sunshine filtered by ozone
Food - nutrient-rich whole food


a) Food Choices

Diets in the 1930s consisted of fresh, freerange meat and locallygrown seasonal fruit and vegetables. Mothers were at home and took the time to prepare and cook fresh meals, and these habits were passed on to their children. Processed food and fast-food options were not available. The focus of life in those days was the family, and the mother’s role was one of nurturing and caring for the children and her husband.

b) The Nutritional State of the Food

Rotational farming - fodder crops rotated with nitrogen-fixing crops and grazing animals - ensured mineral-rich fruit and vegetables, grown in mineral-rich soil [13]. Crops remove minerals from the soil. Nitrogen-fixing crops and animal waste return them. This is sustainable, or conservational, agriculture. Chemical fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides were not used in agriculture before 1930. All these substances upset the mycorrhizal (probiotic bacterial) balance of the soil and reduce the availability of its minerals.

Most produce was consumed locally and its waste returned to local soil, thus renourishing the ground.

The result was an eco balance of healthy, mineral-rich soil, maintained by waste and natural colonies of soil bacteria. Seasonally-produced plants grew rich in minerals and provided humans and animals with the minerals and phytonutrients they needed for health.

Meat was high in omega 3 essential fatty acids. Grazing (free range) animals
produced meat higher in omega 3 than that from grain-fed animals. [17]

“Minerals in the soil control the metabolism of plants, animals and man. All life will be either healthy or unhealthy, according to the fertility of the soil.”
Dr Alexus Carrel, 1912 Nobel Prize Winner, and a prophet ahead of his time.

c) Food Preparation methods


According to Dr Paul Clayton, the Victorians knew more about the preparation of healthy food than we do. Even the good old Sunday roast, with prime meat and healthy vegetables, was better in those days. Why? Because the Victorians knew how to use herbs like rosemary to absorb and remove noxious substances like the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that form in foods during roasting at high temperatures. They also used slower cooking processes at lower temperatures, which helped to maintain the integrity of the nutrients in the food.

There was less wastage too. For instance, water used for boiling meat and vegetables, which contained the water-soluble vitamins and phytonutrients, was saved for use in soups and gravies.


d) Ability of our bodies to assimilate nutrients
In the 1930s, our bodies were relatively unpolluted. There were fewer drugs, chemicals, insecticides, pesticides and preservatives. Few environmental influences adversely affected our ability to assimilate nutrients. Mealtimes were a big part of family life - they lasted longer, and people were more relaxed and chewed their food for longer. Relaxation and adequate chewing of food is important for good digestion and the optimal assimilation of nutrients.


The "Not-So-Good" New Days - 1930 and beyond

Earth Summit Report found that mineral depletion of the soil is over 76% in Europe and 80% in the USA.

"You can trace every sickness, every disease and every ailment to a mineral deficiency"

Two times Nobel Prize Winner Dr.Linus Pauling

In our time, the eco balance has been disturbed, and this has had significant repercussions on the nutritional status of humans and animals.

1) Water - no longer pure and natural. It is treated with fluoride and other chemicals, many of which affect the way our bodies absorb vitamins and minerals. For instance, fluoride inhibits iodine absorption.

2) Air - no longer clean and fresh. It is full of pollution in the form of industrial waste and fuel fumes. There are more free radicals, which in turn pollute our bodies and increase our antioxidant requirements.

3) Light - marred by air pollution. Pure light is extremely important for cell growth and development in plants, animals and humans.

4) Nutrients and Food


Food Choices

As more women started to go out to work and lifestyles became more pressurised, so food choices changed to accommodate this. The carefully prepared, fresh daily meals were replaced by convenience and processed foods.

Today’s children are so accustomed to fast foods that in one school survey, 7 out of 10 thought that potatoes grew on trees! Most people do not eat food with the thought of it giving them the nourishment they need for health. They see it more as a source of energy and something to satisfy hunger. Most processed foods are purchased for colour, taste, texture, calorie content and ease of preparation - not for nutritional value.

SACN’s 2009 Report, The Nutritional Wellbeing of the British Population, identified the following:

• Fruit and vegetable intake is suboptimal in all groups of the population. It is widely recognised that fruit and vegetables reduce the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease and many other chronic disease conditions, but the 5-a-Day message is not working. The mean intake across all ages is 2.8 portions per day, which includes some people in the younger age groups who are not eating any fruit and veg on a daily basis. This shortfall gives rise to a population who are depleted in the active phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables - primarily flavonoids and carotenoids - whose action is protective, antioxidant and reparative.

• Vitamin and mineral intake is suboptimal in all groups, with evidence of very low status of individual nutrients in some groups. These widespread shortfalls are a significant factor in the declining health of the British people.

• Vitamin D: this vitamin plays a major role in the prevention of cancers, osteoporosis and falls in the elderly, and in mental health and wellbeing. Low intakes have been identified in all age groups, but the lowest is in those who need it most - people over 64 and pregnant and nursing women. The most recent data suggests that intakes of up to 5,000iu would be beneficial and do no harm, whereas the current RDA is 2000iu.

• Oily fish: known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory conditions, and to promote mental acuity and concentration. All groups failed to meet the recommended level of 1 portion per week - the mean intake being 0.3.


The State of The Food

In June 2002, The American Medical Association recommended that everyone should take a multivitamin & mineral supplement to help prevent chronic diseases resulting from a diet of nutrientdepleted foods. The food throughout Europe is similarly depleted. Why?

• Intensive farming: fewer minerals are returned to the soil than are taken out. Growing plants can use 60 minerals and trace minerals, but man returns only 3 to the soil in the form of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The reason for this NPK mixture is that scientists found that these were the three minerals which encouraged plants to grow quickly, and yield is considered more important than nutritional content.

But with many minerals taken out and only 3 put back, this inevitably gives rise to deficiencies of the rest. There is evidence to show that on average the same food was 45-125% more nutritionally rich 60 years ago [12].

• Pesticides, insecticides and deep ploughing upset the natural mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza are probiotic bacteria, essential for the transformation of organic minerals to organic forms that can be metabolised by plants, without which the inorganic minerals stay bound in the soil and unavailable to plant life [14]. Less probiotic bacteria = less minerals available to plants = less nutrients in the foods we and our livestock eat.

Plants that are grown with herbicides and pesticides have no need to produce protective compounds themselves. These flavonoids and carotenoids not only protect the plant from disease, UV light and other damage, but have the same beneficial action in our bodies when we eat them. Not only do we eat less of these protective plants, but the plants themselves have a lower content of protective nutrients. Organic plants, grown without pesticides and herbicides, do need to protect themselves, and therefore produce higher levels of flavonoids and carotenoids. This is one area where organic is most definitely best.

The desire for all-year-round (out of season) fruit is met by early picking, cold storage and rapid ripening in ethylene gas. Such fruit does not have a fully-developed nutrient potential, and storage depletes the vitamin content [10].

• Fast and processed foods are foods which have often lost most of their vitamins, minerals and enzymes. Food processing dramatically reduces the mineral content of food by 20-80%, depending on the processing method involved. For example, the nutrient losses in flour refining are: Calcium 50%; Magnesium 84.7%; Chromium 40%; Manganese 86%; and Zinc 77% [15].

• Additives, such as chemical colourings and flavourings, compound the problem. At worst, these are mild poisons; at best, they are chemicals that the body does not see as food. Some act as anti-nutrients and inhibit the uptake of essential nutrients. The body needs to use nutrient resources to deal with these.

• Factory farming: when the movement of animals is restricted, this changes the essential fatty acid content of the meat from high omega 3 (in free range stock) to low omega 3 and high omega 6. Humans lose the benefits of omega 3 EFA nutrition [6].

• Organic food should be the answer. But although organic food has the benefit of being grown according to nature’s laws and being free from pesticide and herbicide residues, making it higher in flavonoids and carotenoids, there is no guarantee that it contains any more minerals than ordinary food. Organic farming uses chemical-free methods of fertilisation, but has not yet been able to reintroduce the minerals which have, for many years, been removed from the soil and not replaced. The eco balance has changed and is no longer symbiotic. This imbalance is reflected in degenerative changes in both animals and humans.

In 1988, the Surgeon General in the USA concluded that 15 out of every 21 deaths involved nutritional deficiencies. If most of our population is now deficient in one or more essential nutrients, this figure is likely to be much higher today in all countries. Indeed, there is a proliferation of research highlighting diseases linked to poor nutritional status. As a result, there has been a dramatic turnaround in the opinion of medical experts. Dr Tom Saunders, Professor of Nutrition at Kings College, London, believes it is almost impossible to select a diet that supplies every nutrient needed for health [4]. Many scientists, who still state in public - as a result of peer pressure - that we don’t need supplements, acknowledge in private that we do, and indeed take supplements themselves [4]. This decision to take supplements is based on a substantial body of scientific evidence which has demonstrated the benefits.

• Research shows that 500mg of vitamin C daily can cut death rates by 50%. The average Western intake is 58mg.

• The World Health Organisation says we need 2.5μg/kg body weight of selenium per day for health and protection from viruses - i.e. a 60kg person needs around 150μg/day. The average UK diet supplies 39μg/day, which means that almost everyone who is not supplementing has a significant shortfall.

• The recent SACN report showed that 47% of girls in the 11-18 age group had intakes of iron below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) - the lowest level acceptable for survival.

• The list goes on...

Environmental influences detrimental to health

• Chemicals, environmental toxins, smoke and fumes all increase our antioxidant needs. Equally, some can impair our ability to absorb and utilise essential nutrients.

• The use of antibiotics has led to widespread probiotic imbalances in our intestines and impaired synthesis of B vitamins and vitamin K, along with decreased uptake of minerals and trace minerals. You have only to look at the physiological activity of probiotics to realise how detrimental to health an imbalance would be. They:

o Support the production of B vitamins, vitamin K and biotin;
o Promote mineral absorption;
o Support carbohydrate and protein absorption;
o Aid metabolism and the breakdown of toxins;
o Maintain appropriate bowel transit time;
o Support the immune system;
o Produce lactic acid for support of digestive processes and colonic pH balance;
o Maintain serum lipid and blood pressure levels within the healthy range.

One of the biggest influences on the Nutrition Gap (and hence hidden hunger) is the shift of foods we consume:
60 years ago our diets were primarily plant based. Now they are primarily animal based.


Antioxidant Comparison of Plant and Animal Foods

Nutrient: 500 Cal
Plant Based
Animal Based
Cholesterol mg
0
137
Fat mg
4000
36000
Protein mg
33000
34000
Beta Carotene mg
29.9
0.017
Dietary Fibre mg
31000
0
Vitamin C mg
293
4
Folate mg
1.17
0.004
Vitamin E mg
11
0.5
Iron mg
20
2
Magnesium mg
548
51
Calcium mg
545
252

Plant Based Foods - equal parts of tomatoes, spinach, lima beans, potatoes and peas.
Animal Based Foods - equal parts of beef, pork, chicken & whole milk.

Source: "The China Experiment" - T Colin Campbell. Chart 11.2 Nutrient Content of Plant and Animal based foods. Page 230.

In addition, plant based foods contain significant quantities of flavonoids and carotenoids. These are now recognised as significant antioxidant protectors, and enhance vitamin effectiveness.

The table above illustrates the difference in nutrient intake between these two types of diet. Plant foods are high in protective nutrients, whereas animal foods are calorie dense, with little or no protective or antioxidant content. This is a major contributor to the nutrition gap that we now face, and would be difficult to resolve without major dietary changes for most people.



The Suggested Optimal Daily Amounts (SODAs) listed below are those published by Dr Paul Clayton in his book Health Defence (2004) and more recently updated in published work commissioned by us. Dr Clayton reviewed over 4,000 studies to arrive at these levels, which are both safe and effective
as a guide for the British population.

What
We Get
What We Need (SODAs)
Is Missing
Upper Safe Level for Supplementation
Vitamin A ug
1012
1800
788
1500
Thiamin (B1) mg
1.7
8-12
6.3-10.3
100
Riboflavin (B2) mg
2
8-12
6-10
40
Niacin (B3) mg
39
50-60
11-21
25
Vitamin B6 mg
2.4
6-12
3.6-9.6
10
Vitamin B12 ug
7.3
8-16
0.8-8.8
2000
Folic Acid ug
252
450
198
400
Vitamin C mg
58-90
500
410-442
1000
Vitamin D ug
2.9
125
122.1
200
Vitamin E mg
9.3
50
40.7
800
Calcium mg
917
950-980
33-63
500
Magnesium mg
308
350
42
400
Iron* mg
13.2
20
6.8
20
Zinc mg
11
20
9
25
Copper mg
1.5
2-3
0.5-1.5
2.5
Iodine ug
180
280
100
500
Selenium ug
35
185
150
350
Chromium ug
30
110-150
80-120
1000
EPA/DHA mg
100-200
750
550-650
Level Not Established
Flavonoids mg
145
450-800
305-655
Level Not Established
Carotenoids mg
2-6
20
14-18
Level Not Established
Beta Glucan mg
100
200-500
100-400
Level Not Established

*There are 2 distinct population groups relating to iron. Children & women of child-bearing age who need to supplement, and men & post-menopausal women who do not. The figure above is a population average but it is important to acknowledge the differing needs, herein described, when assessing a supplement programme for an individual

5-A-DAY

The 5-a-Day message is an integral part of this equation, as 95% of our protective nutrients are found in our 5-a-Day. Each portion of fruit or veg we consume gives us nearly 20% of our antioxidant/protective nutrient intake.

The following is the average intake of fruit and vegetables across the population:

Age
Portions
 
Men
Women
19-24
1.2
1.8
25-29
2.6
2.7
Over 50
3.6
3.8
On Average
2.7
2.8

Of most significance is that NONE of the groups are getting 5 portions a day.
The young people are worst off and it is easy to see that they are storing up significant problems for the future. This is borne out by many doctors who notice that diseases previously seen only in the elderly are now affecting those who are much younger [1].

The following table shows the physiological action of each nutrient, and give you an idea of some of the symptoms and diseases associated with deficiency.

Essential Nutrient
Physiological Action / Function
Main Symptom Associated
with Deficiency of Nutrient
Vitamin A / Beta Carotene
Eye health - visual pigment
Skin health - epithelial repair
Antioxidant - immune support
Protein synthesis
Healthy lung function
Night blindness
Dry, bloodshot or gritty eyes
Age spots
Bleeding gums
Poor growth
Thiamin
(B1)
Blood production
Carbohydrate metabolism
Normal muscle tone
The ‘morale vitamin’
Fatigue
Memory loss
Muscle cramps
Beri Beri
Riboflavin
(B2)
Red blood cell production
Antibody production
Cell respiration & growth.
Dermatitis
Cracks at the corners of the
mouth, sore tongue
Niacin
(B3)
Nervous system function
Protein, fat & carbohydrate
metabolism
Sex hormone synthesis
Oversensitivity to sunlight
Nervous symptoms
Cracked tongue
Pellagra
Vitamin B6
Involved in most body systems
- absorption, electrolyte
balance, red blood cell
production, nervous system
function, enzyme activation &
antibody production
Anaemia
Dermatitis, sore tongue
Nervous symptoms
PMS
Vitamin
B12
Cell production & longevity
Digestion, protein, fat &
carbohydrate metabolism
Nervous system function
Fertility
Anaemia
Digestive disorders
Abnormal gait, muscle wasting &
weakness
Memory loss & hallucinations
Cracks at the corners of the
mouth.
Folic Acid
Energy production
Healthy cell replication
Anaemia & sore tongue
Birth defects
Vitamin C
Antioxidant - immune support
Collagen production - tissue
growth & repair
Poor wound healing
Susceptibility to infection, gum
disease, bruising & allergies
Vitamin D
Calcium & phosphorus
metabolism
Cell growth & immunity
Osteoporosis & rickets
Tooth decay & gum disease
Vitamin E
Antioxidant - immune support
Blood vessel health
Reproductive health
Peripheral neuropathy, myopathy,
ataxia & retinopathy
Impaired immunity
Calcium
Needed for nerve, muscle,
bone, teeth & soft tissue health
Agitation, insomnia, cognitive
impairment, muscle cramps &
numbness
Osteoporosis, brittle nails & gum
disease
Chromium
Carbohydrate & fat metabolism
- insulin function & glucose
uptake
Diabetes, obesity, hyper/hypo
glycaemia, confusion, neuropathy,
raised cholesterol
Copper
Haemoglobin synthesis
Collagen metabolism & elastin
production
Anaemia, alopecia, tooth decay,
stunted growth, poor tissue
elasticity
Iodine
Thyroid hormone production -
Energy metabolism,
temperature, growth &
reproduction
Goitre
Sluggishness, slow heart rate,
weight gain, constipation
Raised cholesterol
Iron
Haemoglobin production
Resistance to infection
Anaemia, alopecia, brittle nails,
anorexia, fatigue, depression,
irritability & confusion
Magnesium
Needed for the metabolism of
calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C,
sodium and potassium
Neurotransmission & electrical
stability of cells
Acid/base balance
Gastro-intestinal disorders
Irregular heart rhythm, lack of coordination,
muscle twitch, tremor &
weakness
Depression, confusion & irritability
Alopecia & gum disease
Selenium
Antioxidant, antiviral & cell
protection
Thyroid metabolism & fertility
Brain health, longevity
Protects against heart disease
Heart disease
Susceptibility to infection
Arthritis, infertility, fatigue
Dandruff, demyelination
Zinc
A constituent of over 2000
metabolic enzymes
Immune system support,
energy production & eye health
Male fertility & potency
Acne, alopecia, amnesia, anorexia,
apathy, brittle nails, depression,
eczema, fatigue, growth
impairment, impaired wound
healing, impotence, irritability,
lethargy, paranoia, sterility, white
spots on nails
Beta Glucan
Immune primer - enhancing
normal immune activity against
non-self components, such as
pathogens and cancer cells
Susceptibility to infections, allergies
& cancer
Carotenoids
Essential for cell
communication and
redifferentiation
Protects skin & retina
Macular degeneration
Sunburn
Skin & other cancers
EPA/DHA
Cell membrane stabiliser &
anti-inflammatory
Cardio-protective: Antithrombotic
& lowers blood fats
Essential for health of joints,
circulation & reproduction
Heart disease
Dry skin
Inflammatory conditions
Poor eyesight & memory
Reproductive problems
Flavonoids
Antioxidant - immune support
Highly protective of DNA
Anti-allergic, antibacterial, antiviral
& antifungal
Membrane fragility, bruising &
inflammation
Immune insufficiency & allergies
Confusion




Additional lifestyle factors that also contribute to the Nutrition Gap

• Dieters - When food intake is reduced, the intake of micronutrients is also reduced, but the body’s requirement for certain vitamins and minerals may actually increase during periods of weight loss.
• Smokers - Each cigarette uses up large amounts of vitamin C and other antioxidants, which is one reason why smokers are more susceptible to heart disease and cancers.
• Drinkers - Too much alcohol depletes the body of B vitamins, magnesium, zinc and calcium.
• Athletes - Heavy exercise burns more oxygen, and increases the requirements for antioxidants. Large quantities of zinc and other minerals are lost in sweat, and need to be replaced.
• Sun-worshippers - Too much sun uses up antioxidants. Extra intake of vitamins A, C and E, flavonoids and carotenoids help protect your skin from the aging effects of the sun
.• Vegans and vegetarians - Need to plan their diets carefully; in particular, to ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B12 and vitamin D - often short in these diets.
• Accidents, illness and surgery - All increase the need for vitamins and minerals, including zinc, calcium, magnesium and vitamins A, B, C, D and E.
• Pregnancy and breast-feeding - The metabolic demands of providing for a growing infant increase the need for B complex vitamins, folic acid, vitamins A, D and E and minerals such as iron, calcium and magnesium.
• The Pill - Oral contraceptives are thought to increase the need for folic acid, vitamins B and C and zinc.
• Post-menopausal women - Need more calcium, magnesium and other minerals to spare their bones. Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K and plant-derived phytonutrients are also important.
• The Elderly - Digestion is less efficient in the elderly, who generally have multiple micronutrient depletion. Poor dentition, depression, other illnesses and drug ingestion may further compound the problem in this age group.



What Can We Do To Address The Imbalance?

The human body needs certain levels of nutrients for optimum health; anything less and it is more susceptible to disease. Food had the ability to supply all the nutrients we needed for optimum health. However, over the past 50 years, the nutrient content of our diets has changed dramatically because:
• Our food choices are now predominately for nutrient depleted foods
• Even for those who eat 3-plus-a-day portions of fruit and veg, there is mineral depletion of the soil. As a result, fewer minerals are found in plants and the animals which graze on them
• We eat both mineral-depleted plants and mineral-depleted animals. There is a big gap in the nutritional status of most people today, and even a wholesome diet of organic food will not always be able to supply all our nutrient requirements [4].

In the words of Dr Paul Clayton:

• This explains why diseases, previously seen only in the elderly, are now affecting younger people. It is due to multiple system failure caused by cumulative depletion of many micronutrients. And as most people are depleted in the majority of micronutrients, it does not make sense to take a single micronutrient.
• Unfortunately, this truth has been overlooked by many clinical scientists. Wedded as they are to the single agent, ‘magic bullet’ approach, they find it hard to appreciate the complex relationship between multiple food ingredients and health.
• We do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, but there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming sub-optimal amounts of micronutrients, most of which are safe. So if we wish to improve the general health of the nation, a comprehensive baseline programme of micronutrient support is the best way to achieve this.
• If a nutrient programme is sufficiently comprehensive, it will remedy whatever dietary defects an individual or population may have. The nutrients needed for health provide overlapping lines of defence. Each defence affords some protection, but unless you have all the defences in place, you remain vulnerable.



Solving the Nutrition Gap and satisfying “Hidden Hunger”

There are 2 issues that need to be addressed to satisfactorily bridge the nutrition gap:

1) The nutrient formula: which must contain the levels of nutrients that will elevate the nutritional intake of most people to optimum for health and protection. This level is the difference between the amount of nutrients being ingested from food and the optimum level needed.
Many supplements on the market do not satisfy this criterion.

2) The form of the nutrient within the formulae: nutrients in a Food State or from wholefoods are the most bio-effective and far more so than standard isolated chemical form nutrients.

1) Why should I Choose Nutrients in a Food Form?


The bio-efficacy of orally administered vitamins, minerals and trace elements is subject to a complex set of influences.

• There are multiple mechanisms that influence the absorption and utilisation of most nutrients
• Food factors are responsible for the correct absorption and utilisation of nutrients in the body. There are no food factors in chemical formulations. [8]
• Emerging evidence shows that food nutrients use different metabolic pathways in the body from laboratory-produced equivalents. [5,7,9,19]
• The physiochemical form of a nutrient is a major factor in bio-efficacy.[11] Food form nutrients and chemical nutrients have different physiochemical forms and are likely to use different metabolic pathways.

Natural food complex vitamins and minerals are in the physiochemical form that the body recognises. They contain many food factors which are intrinsically related to the metabolic pathways of the nutrient within the body.

Chemical isolate nutrients can have value, BUT studies have shown that vitamins in natural food complexes are significantly better absorbed, retained and utilised. [5,7,9,18,19]

The nutrients in our products are presented to the body in the same form as the nutrients in whole food. They are highly bioavailable in small amounts, gentle and effective, even for those who are ill. This is the main feature that sets our products apart from other products on the market.

2) Nature's Own's Programme

We have designed a range of formulae especially to address the prevailing nutrition gap. Our formulae will elevate the nutritional status of people eating average-to-good diets to optimum levels. They will also elevate the nutritional status of those eating poor diets to an improved level of nourishment and protection. Our recommendation is that people take a good Food State multivitamin and mineral formula, designed specifically to address the nutrition gap.

Thereafter, and dependent on individual dietary intake, the following may also be recommended:
• Antioxidant formula - containing flavonoids and carotenoids (protective nutrients from plants)
• Omega 3 supplement
• Beta glucan supplement

What You Are Likely To Notice

Depending on your nutritional status at outset, you are likely to notice one or more of the following benefits after a few weeks:

• Increased energy
• Increased libido
• Improved sleep - hours and quality
• Greater enthusiasm for life
• Improvement in physical and emotional symptoms
• Reduced BMI, weight
• Fewer episodes of acute illness
• Improved visual acuity
• Improved mental acuity - memory
• Reduced blood pressure (if previously high)
• Reduced cholesterol (if previously raised)



References

1. Ames B, 2006 - Low Micronutrient Intake may Accelerate the Degenerative Diseases of Ageing through Allocation of Scarce Micronutrients by Triage.
PNAS; 103; 47; 17589-17594
2. Ames B et al, 2007 - Evidence-based Decision Making on Micronutrients and Chronic Disease: Long-term Randomized Controlled Trials are Not Enough. AJCN; 86; 522-525.
3. British Nutrition Foundation, 2004
4. Clayton Dr P, 2004 - Health Defence. Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire
5. Dobrzañski Z et al, 2003 - Bio-availability of Selenium and Zinc Supplied to the Feed for Laying Hens in Organic and Inorganic Form. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Animal Husbandry; 6;2
6. Erasmus U, 1987 - Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill. Alive Books
7. Fairfield K, Stampfer M, 2007 - Vitamin and Mineral Supplements for Cancer Prevention, Issues and Evidence. AJCN; 85;1;289S-292S
8. Jenkins D et al, 1994 - Diet Factors Affecting Nutrient Metabolism and Absorption. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 8th Ed, Philadelphia, Lea and Febinger; 583-602
9. Korniewicz A et al, 2003 - Bio-availability of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium from Yeasts Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for Swine. Chemistry for Agriculture, Vol 4 (Ed. by Górecki H, Dobrzañski Z): Czech-Pol Trade, Prague Brussels Stockholm, Czech Republic; 171-181
10. Lee S, Kader A, 2000 - Pre-harvest and Post-harvest Factors Influencing Vitamin C Content of Horticultural Crops. Post-harvest Biology and Technology; 20;207-220
11. Macrae R et al, 1993 - Encyclopaedia of Food Science and Nutrition. NY Academic Press. http://www.nutritiondata.com/topics/processing
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